Eye Disorders

Myopia / Short sightedness
The optics of the eye are too powerful for the length of the eyeball and the image falls short of the retina.

Hyperopia / Far sightedness
The optics of the eye are too weak for the length of the eyeball and the image falls beyond the retina.

Astigmatism usually caused by irregularly shaped cornea causing blurred/distorted images. Symptoms of uncorrected astigmatism include eye strain and headaches, especially after prolonged visual tasks .

The flexibility of the internal lens declines typically due to the natural aging process of the eye, affecting your ability to accommodate or focus on nearby objects. It is a progressive condition that is usually first noticed between the ages of 40 and 50, and stabilises at approximately 60 years of age.

Amblyopia (lazy eye)
It is a vision development disorder in which the eye fails to achieve normal visual acuity even with prescription spectacles. Critical period for vision development happens within first 2 years of development. The brain usually receives 2 clear images that can be “fused” in the brain into a single image. If one of the images is too blurred the brain can’t ‘fuse’ the two images, and suppresses the eye with the blurred image. This long term suppression causes incomplete development of the visual function in the affected eye. The same suppression occurs when double vision/diplopia occurs due to strabismic/squint. The brain can’t fuse the two images and suppresses the strabismus/squint eye causing incomplete visual development in the affected eye. Treatment Includes taking care of underlying cause, spectacles to maximise visual acuity or surgery to correct squint. The affected eye then needs to be stimulated to promote visual development. This is done by patching the good eye and incorporating visual therapy to stimulate the development of the amblyopic eye. The earlier the amblyopia is taken care of the easier is it to restore normal vision in the affected eye

Strabismus is an ocular condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. It typically involves an imbalance of extra ocular muscles causing diplopia/double vision, which affects binocular vision and normal vision development in children.

Natural ageing process of the lens within your eye. The transparency of the lens is affected by UV, ageing and trauma. Early in the development of age-related cataracts, the power of the lens is affected, causing myopia and perception of blue colours is reduced. Cataracts typically progress slowly to cause vision loss and potentially blinding if left untreated. This age related cataract typically affects both eyes, but mostly one eye is affected earlier than the other. Other causes of cataracts includes trauma and diabetes. The early treatment for a cataract is surgical removal by an ophthalmologist, a common procedure performed regularly.

Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently affecting vision in the affected eye, causing visual field loss and tunnel vision, progressing to complete blindness if left untreated. It is normally associated with increased intra ocular pressure, resulting in the loss of retinal ganglion cells. ‘Low tension’ glaucoma is the condition where optic nerve damage happens even with normal pressures.
The treatment aims to reduce the pressure in the affected eye. This usually is done with eye drops prescribed by your ophthalmologist, or surgical treatment done by your ophthalmologist.

Macular degeneration
Progressive eye condition in which the part of the retina, called the macula, is damaged, resulting in a loss of central vision. Central vision allows us to see detail when we look directly at something, such as reading, recognizing faces. Macular degeneration also causes metamorphopsia “wavy vision” and a reduction in colour vision and contrast sensitivity. Depending on the type of macular degeneration, progress can be slowed by introducing vitamin supplements, intraocular injections and laser treatment.

Retinitis pigmentosa
Retinitis Pigmentosa is an inherited degenerative disease, that typically affects both eyes, that causes severe vision impairment and can lead to blindness. Symptoms include night blindness, tunnel vision, slow dark to light adaptation, poor colour separation. Currently there are no treatments but progression of the disease can be reduced by vitamin A supplements.

Pinguecula is an elevated bump on the sclera, usually on the nasal side that does extend over the cornea. It is a change in the conjunctiva that results in a deposit of protein, fat or calcium. Surgical removal is usually not indicated.

Pterygium is a benign thickening or growth of the conjunctiva typically on the nasal side of the sclera extending over the cornea. It is usually caused by ultraviolet light exposure, dust, wind and dry eye. When the pterygium affects your vision or causes ocular discomfort you can undergo a simple surgical removal by your ophthalmologist. Tear substitutes can be used to reduce symptoms of discomfort.